2.1 What is Acid Rain?

  2.1 What is Acid Rain?

  • When industries, automobiles, electric power plants burned coal and petroleum, the specific gas is Acid Rain. These gases combine with the oxygen and water in the air.


The Taj Mahal in Agra, India’s most popular tourist attraction, has been a source of concern for the past two decades. Pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide have been produced by factories in and around Agra, such as rubber manufacturing, cars, chemicals, and, in particular, the Mathura oil refinery. Sulphuric acid and nitric acid are formed when these gases react with water vapour in the atmosphere. Rain brings the acids down with it, rendering the rain acidic. This is referred to as acid rain. The monument’s marble is eroded by acid rain. The condition is also known as “Marble cancer.” The marble has yellowed due to suspended particulate matter, such as soot particles released by the Mathura oil refinery.  The Supreme Court has taken several steps to save the Taj.



Talk to your elders about the Taj’s situation 20 or 30 years ago and see what they have to say! Obtain a photograph of the Taj Mahal for your scrapbook.


Water Shortage:

Water shortages may be caused by climate change, such as altered weather patterns, including droughts or floods, increased pollution, and increased human demand and water overuse.

 Due to overpopulation, many countries in the world face the severe problem of water shortage. Several large cities of India have experienced water shortages in recent years.

  • In India, states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Tamilnadu and Rajasthan where water shortage hits the most.
  • In Rajasthan, thousands of women walk several kilometres every day to fetch water for their household needs.

Let’s look at some essential pictures which show how badly water shortages hit India

Water scarcity is driven by two converging phenomena: growing freshwater use and depletion of usable freshwater resources.

The problem of water scarcity is rapidly rising in the current scenario, and it becomes the most significant challenge because the ratio of safe drinking water is reducing.

  • Water scarcity is a lack of drinkablewater available in an area.
  • Changes in climateand weather patterns can cause water scarcity.
  • Some of the primary reasons for water scarcity are:
  • Sewage and wastewater drainage.
  • Lack of efficient water management and water distribution between urban consumers, industry, and the agriculture sector.
  • Inefficient use of water for agriculture. India is among the top growers of agricultural products globally, and therefore, the consumption of water for irrigation is amongst the highest.

Wasteful use of water for Agriculture and Industries

  • The agriculture and industrial sector became the leading cause of water shortage in the world. India is one of the major food producers in the world
  • In India, most of the areas are still using traditional irrigation techniques that stress water availability.
  • The traditional irrigation method wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and groundwater overuse.

Have you ever paid attention to the water getting wasted at the house? Let us list out few such activities.

Washing the car:

Using a hose to wash the car can use up gallons of water. If you leave the hose running, you can end up wasting almost 150 gallons of water.

Long showers:

Did you know that taking long showers wastes five to 10 gallons of water? Use buckets and a pail for bathing wisely.

Leaky faucets and toilets:

Leaky tank valves draining water into the toilet waste up to 1,000 gallons of water a month. It may seem insignificant, but the little drips can add up.

Wasting water in the kitchen:

The kitchen uses a lot of water, and there are plenty of ways in which one may unknowingly waste it. Washing fruits and vegetables in running water will not get them any cleaner than washing them in a pan filled with water.

Cleaning the House:

Cleaning the house is a whole task, and much water is wasted if not done wisely.

Climate Change 

  • Due to the increasing number of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The patterns of weather and water are getting change around the world.
  • Droughts and floods are becoming the most common issue in some places.
  • Glaciers and snowpacks are getting disappear in some areas, which affecting the freshwater supplies.
  • These changes make less water available for significant usages like agriculture, energy generation, cities, and ecosystems.

Let us take a look at NITI Ayog on the problem of water shortage in India.